Stephen C. Meyer Philosopher of Science
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Appearances


A recent Nature publication reports a new technique for measuring the oxygen levels in Earth’s atmosphere some 4.4 billion years ago. The authors found that by studying cerium oxidation states in zircon, a compound formed from volcanic magma, they could ascertain the oxidation levels in the early earth. Their findings suggest that the early Earth’s oxygen levels were very close to current levels.

Organic reactions are reactions that involve carbon-containing compounds. For the purposes of origin-of-life research, we are interested in nucleotides, the organic compounds that comprise DNA and RNA, or amino acids, the organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Among origin-of-life scientists, the RNA-first world hypothesis has gained much ground. (See here for an article about recent research in this area.) However, RNA comes from other RNA molecules, and proteins come from other proteins. So the first molecules of life must have arisen by another process, different from how they are formed today. Miller and Urey conducted experiments to show that under certain atmospheric conditions and with the right kind of electrical charge, several amino acids could form from inorganic compounds such as methane, ammonia, and water. Several experiments have been done using various inorganic starting materials, all yielding a few amino acids; however, one key aspect of all of these experiments was the lack of oxygen.

If the atmosphere has oxygen (or other oxidants) in it, then it is an oxidizing atmosphere. If the atmosphere lacks oxygen, then it is either inert or a reducing atmosphere. Think of a metal that has been left outside, maybe a piece of iron. That metal will eventually rust. Rusting is the result of the metal being oxidized. With organic reactions, such as the ones that produce amino acids, it is very important that no oxygen be present, or it will quench the reaction. Scientists, therefore, concluded that the early Earth must have been a reducing environment when life first formed (or the building blocks of life first formed) because that was the best environment for producing amino acids. The atmosphere eventually accumulated oxygen, but life did not form in an oxidative environment.

The problem with this hypothesis is that it is based on the assumption that organic life must have formed from inorganic materials. That is why the early Earth must have been a reducing atmosphere. Research has been accumulating for more than thirty years, however, suggesting that the early Earth likely did have oxygen present. Unfortunately, the idea that inorganic compounds can come together to eventually form the building blocks of life was such a good story that the Miller-Urey experiment and the assumption about the early Earth’s reducing atmosphere were perpetuated in the classroom long after the scientific evidence had turned against them. (See here for an article on misuses of the Miller-Urey experiment.)

This brings us back to that Nature letter, which offers another reason to question the reducing environment of the early Earth. The authors looked at the cerium oxidation levels within zircon. Zircon is a hard rock that forms from the solidification of magma. Several studies have been done with zircon because of its age and durability. (See here for a report on using zircon to determine when oceans and land were present on Earth.) Cerium (Ce) is an element that can be found in early Earth zircon. The ratio of cerium’s +3 and +4 oxidation states indicates the environmental conditions at the time the cerium was trapped in the zircon. Specifically, cerium’s oxidation ratio is related to the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. The authors created cerium-infused zircon in the lab at various oxidative ratios to make a calibration curve to which they could then compare the early Earth samples.

Their findings not only showed that oxygen was present in the early Earth atmosphere, something that has been shown in other studies, but that oxygen was present as early as 4.4 billion years ago. This takes the window of time available for life to have begun, by an origin-of-life scenario like the RNA-first world, and reduces it to an incredibly short amount of time. Several factors need to coincide in order for nucleotides or amino acids to form from purely naturalistic circumstances (chance and chemistry). The specific conditions required already made purely naturalist origin-of-life scenarios highly unlikely. Drastically reducing the amount of time available, adding that to the other conditions needing to be fulfilled, makes the RNA world hypothesis or a Miller-Urey-like synthesis of amino acids simply impossible.

The study clearly presupposes a certain confidence level in zircon dating. Yet our confidence on that point is open to debate. Certainly zircon seems to exhibit toughness and durability. However, some scientists question zircon dating because it is based on uranium and lead levels within zircon. Others argue that zircon-dating techniques are quite good and that these zircon samples are the oldest samples we have. The nature of the debate and the specifics about zircon-dating methods are beyond the scope of this article, but the issue merits mentioning because it affects the implication of the results of this research.

What does it all mean for origin-of-life research? In an interview, one of the authors of the paper, Bruce Watson, states that “We can now say with some certainty that many scientists studying the origins of life on Earth simply picked the wrong atmosphere.” He hopes that the results of their research “may reinvigorate theories that perhaps those building blocks for life were not created on Earth, but delivered from elsewhere in the galaxy.” Perhaps. But just because we are having trouble showing that life arose from purely naturalistic causes on Earth, it doesn’t necessarily follow that the solution must be found elsewhere.

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studio condenser microphone, isolated on black. copy space on left

Dennis Prager and Stephen Meyer Introduce New PragerU Video Series Making the Case for a Return of the God Hypothesis

In an Ultimate Issues hour of The Dennis Prager Show, Stephen Meyer and Dennis Prager introduce a series of 5 new PragerU videos that illustrate key arguments of Meyer’s latest book Return of the God Hypothesis. Watch the interview here:

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Glowing huge nebula with young stars. Space background

Let There Be Light: Meyer and Medved Discuss Promise of New NASA Telescope

A telescope designed to see the universe's first light. Stephen Meyer has more on this amazing new launch from NASA. Read More ›
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Microphone and mixer at the radio station studio broadcasting news

Stand to Reason: A Discussion of Reasoning and Evidence for the God Hypothesis

Greg Koukl welcomed Dr. Stephen Meyer back to the Stand to Reason podcast to chat about his new book, recently named a Book of the Year by WORLD Magazine. The power of the theistic design hypothesis, says Meyer, comes from bringing several classes of evidence together to bear on the problems of the origin of life and the universe. Meyer also discusses why he uses the word “Return” in the book’s title, what type of reasoning is best to evaluate multiple competing hypotheses, how he makes his argument for a specifically theistic designer, and more! Listen to the full hour now:

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Harvard University, Boston

Meyer Discusses Harvard’s Atheist Chaplain and the “Twilight of the Godless Universe” on the Michael Medved Show

There’s often a lag time between the formation of ideas at the scholarly and scientific level and the dissemination of those ideas into the broader culture. On the Michael Medved show, Stephen Meyer explains how the appointment of an atheist chaplain at Harvard is an outcome of a lingering cultural perception about science and religion—even though this perception is incongruous with major developments in science. In addition, Medved prompts Meyer to explain his recent op-ed, published in The Jerusalem Post: “Steven Weinberg and the Twilight of the Godless Universe.” Be sure to listen to this nice, compact interview!

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Science and research of the universe, spiral galaxy and physical formulas, concept of knowledge and education

East Coast Radio Host Lee Elci Explores the Multiverse, Stephen Hawking with Meyer

Enthusiastic host Lee Elci interviews Stephen Meyer about some of the biggest scientific discoveries in recent history, as well as the implications of these findings. Topics include big bang cosmology, the vastly improbable fine tuning of the universe, and the immense complexity of the cell that was thought to be simple in Darwin’s time. Elci and Meyer also discuss the multiverse and the amazing story of Stephen Hawking. Listen to both segments to hear an information-packed conversation!

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microphone in studio at background 3d illustration

The Power Hour: Stephen Meyer on the Consequences of a Culture that Forgets God

On a recent episode of radio show The Power Hour, Dr. Stephen Meyer talks about his latest book Return of the God Hypothesis with guest host Karen Kataline. Along the way, they discuss the consequences of a culture that adopts a no-god society. Is there a scientific basis for God today? What is the evidence for the activity of mind in nature? What is the relationship between creativity and freedom? What ideas in our culture are downstream from the issue of the existence of God? Listen to this thought-provoking chat revealing why Dr. Meyer’s book Return of the God Hypothesis is so timely and so needed in this current moment in history.

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A Conversation with NPR’s Dr. Alan Campbell on Watching America

In this episode of Watching America, Meyer talks about his book, "Return of the God Hypothesis." While intellectuals in the 19th century began insisting that science and religion were in a never-ending war, Meyer details three modern scientific discoveries with decidedly theistic implications. You don't want to miss this thought-provoking conversation. Read More ›
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Black guitar amplifier with jack cable on black  background

The God Hypothesis Unplugged with Hank Hanegraaff

Beginning in the late 19th century, many intellectuals began to insist that scientific knowledge conflicts with traditional theistic belief — that science and belief in God are “at war.” In Return of the God Hypothesis, Stephen Meyer argues that theism — with its affirmation of a transcendent, intelligent and active creator — best explains the evidence we have concerning biological and cosmological origins. Previously Meyer refrained from attempting to answer questions about “who” might have designed life. Now he provides an evidence-based answer to perhaps the ultimate mystery of the universe. The results? Meyer reveals a stunning conclusion: the data support not just the existence of an intelligent designer of some kind — but the existence of a personal God. You Read More ›

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Milky Way galaxy and starry night sky

Separation of Church and Science: Dr. Stephen Meyer Discusses New Book on Steel on Steel News Radio

Stephen Meyer joins 40-year broadcasting veteran John Loeffler, host of Steel on Steel. In this interview, you can hear about a conference at the Royal Society convened by a group of evolutionary biologists who are openly stating the need for a new theory of evolution. These evolutionary biologists recognize the inadequacy of the current neo-Darwinian model. You can also hear why the multiverse hypothesis, even if true, fails to explain the ultimate origin of fine tuning. Be sure to listen in!